Concussions are one of the most under-reported injuries, specifically among young athletes. According to the National Library of Medicine, nearly one-third of all athletes have sustained previously undiagnosed concussions. Additionally, an estimated 2.8 million people sustain some type of traumatic brain injury in the U.S. each year, according to a CDC study conducted between 2007 and 2013.
If you’ve experienced one or more of the following symptoms, you may want to visit with your doctor. These injuries can often be severe, with long-lasting mental or physical effects even after they’ve healed. However, treatment options exist which can help to minimize the damaging effects of a concussion, especially if detected early. Understanding all of the symptoms of a concussion is especially important, as many of these signs typically don’t even appear until hours or days after the initial injury.
24. Splitting Headache
It will come as no surprise that one of the first symptoms of a sudden and violent blow to the head is often a persistent headache. It can be as simple as a tension headache, or something much more similar to a migraine. Regardless of the severity, these headaches should lessen over time and can be treated with medication. If they don’t clear up, or if they worsen over time, then medical help should be sought out.
Many times, the direct result of a concussion will be that the person is knocked unconscious. This is to be expected, considering that their very mushy brain has just been slammed against the inside of the skull. One does not necessarily lose consciousness after a concussion, but if it does occur it is usually only temporary.
Fatigue is also a common sign of a concussion, which is ironic because one of the worse things you can do for a person with a concussion is to let them fall asleep right away. Also, despite the fact that it’s a common symptom, any situation in which a person with a traumatic head injury can’t seem to stay awake could be a sign of serious damage.
21. Seeing Stars
Even if a person isn’t feeling particularly sleepy as a result of their concussion, they might certainly feel dizzy. They might also experience a ringing sound in their ears or “see stars.” If a person experiences any of these symptoms, have them sit down for a bit to gather their wits about them. If their dizziness persists into something worse, it might mean they need to see a doctor.
Some concussion victims find that they are very confused afterward. They may feel as if they are in a fog or unable to focus. This is especially dangerous when one sustains a concussion with no one else around. If you are alone and confused after hitting your head, you may not, but should, have the presence of mind to avoid sleeping or even see a doctor.
Many who sustain a concussion don’t initially remember what happened immediately prior to the injury. Frankly, when your brain bumps around in your head, its expected that your memory might be a little hazy. Usually this memory fog will dissipate after a short time, it’s only when such symptoms reappear over time that one might worry.
18. Memory Gaps
Long term symptoms of a more serious concussion can involve persistent amnesia and memory gaps, as well as problems with concentration. These changes won’t be apparent until several days after the injury, but they are still worth taking into consideration.
17. Nausea and Vomiting
It may seem unusual but it’s actually perfectly normal for people with concussions to feel nauseous at the onset of the injury. This feeling may persist as well, becoming either more or less severe as time goes on. In the worst cases, the injury can make the person increasingly sick to the point of them having to vomit.
16. Slurred Speech
There are a number of more serious symptoms that come alone with more severe concussions as well. One of them, slurred speech, is only really noticeable when the person is conscious and with someone. The person may sound as if they are highly intoxicated and can be a sign that the brain injury was worse than expected.
15. Delayed Response
If the person is slurring or seems delayed in their responses when questioned, it can be indicative of unexpected damage from the concussion. This doesn’t simply refer to a person’s response to vocal stimuli, it can also mean their responses to light, sound, touch, etc.
14. Sensitivity to Light
Another fairly common symptom of a concussion is that the victim may seem particularly sensitive to bright lights and loud noises. Light tracking and a test of pupil dilation can determine the extent of this light sensitivity. If they are feeling oversensitive, it’s best to lower the lights or allow the victim to rest in the dark, but not to let them fall sleep directly following the accident.
13. Unusual Smells
In addition to their sense of sight and hearing, those with more severe concussions might notice short term or in some cases, even long term changes to the way they smell certain things. They might smell burning toast or something coppery.
12. Unusual Tastes
The affected person might even notice strange tastes in their mouth that no one else would otherwise be able to discern. It can be a similarly metallic or a burned taste just as in the scents.These are examples of common cases, of course, and there are worse symptoms out there.
11. Seizures or Convulsions
All of these pale in comparison to some of the more troubling physical and mental symptoms of a concussion. Even a simple concussion can trigger seizures or convulsions in a victim. Whether these seizures only happen once, or if they persist over time, it is prudent for anyone with a traumatic head injury to investigate them with the help of their doctor.
10. Personality Changes
A person who suffers a serious concussion may find that they experience a certain amount of irritability in the short term. This irritability can be a portent of other, more serious personality changes to come, ranging from further malaise and short-temper to those as serious as full-on depression. In times like these, medication might have to be introduced to regulate these psychological symptoms.
9. Poor Balance
Children are especially sensitive to concussions and exhibit a number of symptoms which one might not be able to detect at first. After all, especially young children aren’t exactly adept at walking quite yet to begin with. Nevertheless, any frequent loss of balance following an injury should be a clear indication.
If a child who has been injured appears to be listless or lacking in the exuberance they once exhibited, it would be a good idea to have them checked out for any sort of traumatic brain injury. Listlessness is a sure sign that something might be wrong.
7. Mood Swings
Children are already possessed of pretty crazy mood swings. They can go from laughing and happy to crying uncontrollably in the very next moment. If you notice a child is abnormally cranky or is crying excessively, then it may be a good idea to check them for any lumps or bumps.
If a child seems to show a lack of interest in their favorite toys, games, or heaven forbid, electronic devices, it may be a sign of something wrong. The same holds true if attempts to engage them in play behavior winds up being unsuccessful.
5. Sleep Changes
New parents know all too well that children rarely sleep all the way through the night, this is especially true of younger children like babies and toddlers. If a potentially injured child seems to be sleeping more or sleeping less than they normally do, it may be an indication of a concussion.
4. Suppressed Appetite
Kids never seem to want to eat the things we prefer they would. It’s not unusual for children to avoid eating fruits, vegetables, and unfamiliar foods. However, if your child doesn’t want to eat chicken nuggets, cookies, or mac n’ cheese following a head bump, it might be a good indication something’s up.
3. Painful Bumps
If your child has a clear bump or bruise on their head that causes them to cry out when you touch it, that’s not unusual. That said, if they cry when their head is moved or seem inconsolable following an accident, it might be prudent to take the child to the doctor or the emergency room as soon as possible.
2. Pupil Dilation
In uninjured people, pupils should dilate consensually and be of equal size. If a person or child is suffering from a concussion though, the pupils may seem to be unequal sizes or else dilate unevenly. This is a serious and not always overt sign of a potentially serious injury.
1. Post Concussion Syndrome
It’s rare, but some people who suffer concussions can develop something known as Post-concussion syndrome or PCS. Those with the condition continue to experience symptoms related to their concussions for weeks. The best way to relieve this is, again, long periods of rest following injury.